Researchers

Publications

Books

Naveh-Benjamin, M., and Ohta, N. (Eds.) (2012). Memory and aging: Current issues and future directions.. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Moulin, C.J.A., Naveh-Benjamin, M., and Souchay, C. (Eds.) (2009). Episodic memory and healthy aging. Hove, England: Psychology Press.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Moscovitch, M., and Roediger, H.L. III (Eds.) (2002). Perspectives on human memory and cognitive aging: Essays in honour of Fergus Craik. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Articles

Greene, N.R., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2020). A specificity principle of memory: Evidence from aging and associative memory. Psychological Science, 31, 316-331.

Greene, N.R., Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Cowan, N (2020). Adult age differences in working memory capacity: Spared central storage but deficits in ability to maximize peripheral storage. Psychology and Aging, 35, 866-880

Cowan, N., Belletier, C., Doherty, J., Jaroslawska, A., Rhodes, S., Forsberg, A., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Barrouillet, P., Camos, V., & Logie, R. H (2020). How do scientific views change? Notes from an extended adversarial collaboration on Working Memory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 15, 1011-1025. 

Rhodes, S., Abbene, E. E., Meierhofer, A. M., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (In press). Age differences in the precision of memory at short and long delays. Psychology and Aging

Kuhlmann, B.G., Brubaker, M.S., Pfeiffer, T., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (In press). Longer resistance of associative versus item memory to interference-based forgetting, even in older adults.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.  

Haaf, J.M., Rhodes, S., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Sun, T., Snyder, H., & Rouder, J.N. (In press). Revisiting the remember-know task: Replications of Gardiner and Java (1990).  Memory & Cognition

Rhodes, S., Greene, N.R., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2019). Age-related differences in recall and recognition: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26, 1529-1547.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Brubaker, M.S. (2019). Are the effects of divided attention on memory encoding processes due to the disruption of deep-level elaborative processes? Evidence from cued- and free-recall tasks. Journal of Memory and Language, 106, 108-117.

Peterson, D.J., Decker, R., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2019). Further studies on the role of attention and stimulus repetition in item-item binding processes in visual working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition45, 56-70.

Peterson, D.J., Decker, R., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2019). The effects of divided attention and of stimulus repetition on item-item binding in verbal working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 45, 1955-1969.

Rhodes, S., Jaroslawska, A.J., Doherty, J.M., Belletier, C., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Cowan, N., Camos, V., Barrouillet, P., & Logie, R. H. (2019). Storage and processing in working memory: Assessing dual-task performance and task prioritization across the adult lifespan. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148, 1204-1227.

Doherty, J.M., Belletier, C., Rhodes, S., Jaroslawska, A.J., Barrouillet, P., Camos, V., Cowan, N., Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Logie, R.H. (2019). Dual-task costs in working memory: An adversarial collaboration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 45, 1529-1551.

Mohanty, P., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2018). Mitigating the adverse effects of response deadline on recognition memory: Differential effects of semantic memory support on item and associative memory. Journal of Memory and Language102, 182-194.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Mayr, U. (2018). Age-related differences in associative memory: Empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives. Psychology and Aging33, 1-6.

Brubaker, M., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2018). The effects of stereotype threat on the associative memory deficit of older adults. Psychology and Aging33, 17-29.

Fine, H., Shing, Y.L., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2018). Effects of changes in schematic support and of item repetition on age-related associative memory deficits: Theoretically-driven empirical attempts to reduce older adults' high false alarm rate. Psychology and Aging33, 57-73.

Smyth, A. & and Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2018). Existing knowledge of linguistic structure mitigates associative memory deficits in older adults. Experimental Aging Research44, 35-47.

Gargya, S., Blume, C.L., Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Cowan, N. (2018). Memory. In M.H. Bornstein (ed.), SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development (pp. 1375-1379). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Peterson, D.J., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2017). The role of attention in item-item binding in visual working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition43, 1403-1414.

Bender, A. R., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Amann, K., & Raz, N. (2017). The role of stimulus complexity and salience in memory for face-name associations in healthy adults: Friend or foe? Psychology and Aging32, 489-505.

Peterson, D. J., Gargya, S., Kopeikin, K. S., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2017). The impact of level of education on age-related deficits in associative memory: Behavioral and neuropsychological perspectives. Cortex91, 9-24.

Peterson, D.J., Schmidt, N.E., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2017). The role of schematic support in age-related associative deficits in short-term and long-term memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 92, 79-97.

Papenberg, G., Becker, N., Ferencz, B., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Laukka, E.J., Bäckman, L., & Brehmer, Y (2017). Dopamine receptor genes modulate associative memory in old age. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience29, 245-253.

Peterson, D.J., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2016). The role of aging in intra-item and item-context binding processes in visual working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition42, 1713-1730.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Smyth, A. C. (2016). DRYAD and ADH: Further comments on explaining age-related differences in memory. Psychology and Aging31, 21-24.

Smyth, A.C., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2016). Can DRYAD explain age-related associative memory deficits? Psychology and Aging31, 1-13.

Mohanty, P., Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Ratneshwar, S. (2016). Beneficial effects of semantic memory support on older adults' episodic memory: Differential patterns of support of item and associative information. Psychology and Aging31, 25-36.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. Associative deficit hypothesis. (2016). In S. Krauss Whitbourne (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging. Malden, Oxford: John Wiley and Sons.

Guez, J., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2016). Proactive interference and concurrent inhibitory processes do not differentially affect item and associative recognition: Implication for the age-related associative memory deficit. Memory24, 1091-1107.

Becker, N, Laukka, E.J, Kalpouzos, G, Naveh-Benjamin, M, Backman, L, Brehmer, Y.(2015).Structural brain correlates of associative memory in older adultsNeuroImage118, 146-153.

Hara, Y., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2015). The role of reduced working memory storage and processing resources in the associative memory deficit of older adults: Simulation studies with younger adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition22, 129-154.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Kilb, A., Maddox, G., Thomas, J., Fine, H., Chen, T., & Cowan, N. (2014). Older adults don't notice their names: A new twist to a classic attention task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition40, 1540-1550.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Kilb, A. (2014). Age-related differences in associative memory: The role of sensory decline. Psychology and Aging29, 672-683.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Guez, J., Hara, Y., Brubaker, M.S., & Loewenschuss-Erlich, I. (2014). The effects of divided attention on encoding processes under incidental and intentional learning instructions: Underlying mechanisms? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology671682-1696.

Kilb, A., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2014). The effects of divided attention on long-term memory and working memory in younger and older adults: Assessment of the reduced attentional resources hypothesis. In R.H. Logie and R.G. Morris (Eds.), Working Memory and Ageing. Pp. 48-78. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Brubaker, M.S., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2014). The effects of presentation rate and retention interval on memory for items and associations in younger adults: A simulation of older adults’ associative memory deficit. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 21, 1-26.

Guez, J., Cohen, J., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Shiber, A., Yankovsky, Y., Saar, R., & Shalev, H. (2013). Associative memory impairment in acute stress disorder: Characteristics and time course. Psychiatry Research, 209, 479-484.

Guez, J., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2013). The asymmetrical effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes: A different view based on an interference with the episodic register. PLoS ONE8, 1-14, e74447.

Maddox, G.B., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Old, S., Kilb, A. (2012). The role of attention in the associative binding of emotionally arousing words. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 1128-1134.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Kilb, A. (2012). How the measurement of memory processes can affect memory performance:  The case of remember/know judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 194-203.

Old, S.R., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2012)Age differences in memory for names: The effect of pre-learned semantic associations. Psychology and Aging27, 462-473.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Maddox, G., Jones, P., Old, S., & Kilb, A. (2012)The effects of emotional valence and gender on the associative memory deficit of older adults. Memory & Cognition40, 551-566.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2012). Age-related differences in associative memory: Contributions of effortful-strategic and automatic processes. In M. Naveh-Benjamin and N. Ohta (Eds.), Memory and aging: Current issues and future directions (pp. 71-96). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Chen, T., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2012)Assessing the associative deficit of older adults in long-term and short-term/working memory. Psychology and Aging27, 666-682.

Kilb, A., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2011). The effects of pure pair repetition on younger and older adults' associative memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 706-719.

Guez, J., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Yankovsky, Y., Cohen, J., Shiber, A., & Shalev, H. (2011).  Traumatic stress is linked to a deficit in associative episodic memory. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 260-267.

Bender, A. R., Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Raz, N. (2010). Associative deficit in recognition memory in a lifespan sample of healthy adults. Psychology and Aging, 25, 940-948

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Shing, Y-L., Kilb, A., Werkle-Bergner, M., Lindenberger, U., & Li, S-C. (2009). Adult age differences in memory for name-face associations: The effects of intentional and incidental learning. Memory, 220-232.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Souchay, C., & Moulin, C.J.A. (2009). Editorial for the special issue on episodic memory and healthy aging. Memory, 1-5.

Gilchrist A.L., Cowan, N., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2009). Investigating the childhood development of working memory using sentences: New evidence for the growth of chunk capacity. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 252-265.

Old, S. & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2008). Differential effects of age on item and associative measures of memory: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 23, 104-118.

Old, S. & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2008).  Memory for people and their actions: Further evidence for an age-related associative deficit. Psychology and Aging, 23, 467-472.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Old, S. R. (2008).  Aging and memory.  In J. H. Byrne, H. Eichenbaum, R. Menzel, H. L. Roediger, & D. Sweatt (Eds.), Learning and memory:  A comprehensive reference (pp. 787-808).  Oxford, UK:  Elsevier.

Old, S. R., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2008).  Age-related changes in memory:  Experimental approaches.  In S. M. Hofer & D. F. Alwin (Eds.), The handbook on cognitive aging:  Interdisciplinary perspectives.  Thousand Oaks:  Sage.

Rouder, J.N., Lu, J., Sun, D., Speckman, P., Morey, R., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2007). Signal detection models with random participant and item effects.  Psychometrika, 72, 621-642.

Kilb, A., & Naveh-Benjamin, M.  (2007). Paying attention to binding: Further studies assessing the role of reduced attentional resources in the associative deficit of older adults. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1162-1174.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Cowan, N., Kilb, A., & Chen, Z (2007).  Age-related differences in immediate serial recall: Dissociating chunk formation and capacity. Memory & Cognition, 35, 724-737.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Keshet Brav, T., & Levi, D. (2007). The associative memory deficit of older adults: The role of efficient strategy utilization. Psychology and Aging, 22, 202-208.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Guez, J., & Sorek, S. (2007).  The effects of divided attention on encoding processes in memory: Mapping the locus of interference. The Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 1-12.

Naveh-Benjamin, M.  (2006). Adult-age differences and the effects of divided attention in young on episodic memory: A Common Associative Deficit Mechanism? In Handbook of Binding and Memory: Perspectives from Cognitive Neuroscience, H.D. Zimmer, A. Mecklinger, and U. Lindenberger (Eds.), Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 627-656.

Cowan, N., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Kilb, A., & Saults, J.S. (2006). Life-span development of visual working memory: When is feature binding difficult? Developmental Psychology42, 1089-1102.

Guez, J., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2006). Divided attention at encoding and retrieval for once- and thrice-presented items: A micro-level analysis of attentional costs. The European Journal of Cognitive Psychology18, 874-898.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Kilb, A., & Fisher, T. (2006). Concurrent task effects on memory encoding and retrieval: Further support for an asymmetry. Memory & Cognition34, 90-101.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Craik, F.I.M., Guez, J., & Kreuger, S. (2005). Divided attention in younger and older adults: Effects of strategy and relatedness on memory performance and secondary task costs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition32, 520-537. [ article in pdf ]

Li, S-C, Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Lindenberger, U. (2005). Aging neuromodulation impairs associative binding. Psychological Science16, 445-450. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Guez, J., Kilb, A., & Reedy, S. (2004). The associative deficit of older adults: Further support using face-name associations. Psychology and Aging19, 541-546. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Guez, J., & Shulman, S. (2004). Older adults’ associative deficit in episodic memory: Assessing the role of decline in attentional resources. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review11, 1067-1073. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Guez, J., & Marom, M. (2003). The effects of divided attention at encoding on item and associative memory. Memory and Cognition31, 1021-1035. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Hussain, Z., Guez, J., & Bar-On, M. (2003). Adult-age differences in memory performance: Further support for an associative deficit hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition29, 826-837. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2002). The effects of divided attention on encoding processes: Underlying mechanisms. In Perspectives on Human Memory and Cognitive Aging. M. Naveh-Benjamin, M. Moscovitch, and H.L. Roediger, III (Eds.), Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Craik, F.I.M., & Ben-Shaul, L. (2002). Age-related differences in cued recall: Effects of support at encoding and retrieval. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition9, 276-287. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M. and Guez Y. (2000). The effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes: Assessment of attentional costs and a componential analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 26, 1461-1482. [ article in pdf ]

Craik, F. I. M., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Ishaik, G., & Anderson, N. D. (2000). Divided attention at encoding and retrieval: The effects of cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition26, 1744-1749. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Craik, F. I. M, Gavrilescu, D., and Anderson, N. (2000). Asymmetry between encoding and retrieval processes: Evidence from a divided attention paradigm and a calibration analysis. Memory and Cognition28, 965-976. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2000). Adult-age differences in memory performance: Tests of an associative deficit hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition26, 1170-1187. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Craik, F.I.M., & Perretta, J. (2000). The effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes: The resiliency of retrieval processes. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology53, 609-626.

Craik, F.I.M., Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Anderson, N. (1998). Encoding and retrieval processes: Similarities and differences. In Theories of Memory, II, M. Conway, S. Gathercole, and C. Cornoldi, (Eds.), London: Psychology Press, pp. 61-86.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Craik, F. I. M, Guez, Y, & Dori, H. (1998). The effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory: Further support for an asymmetry. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition24, 1091-1104. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Craik, F.I.M. (1998). Presenting & analyzing results in aging research. Experimental Aging Research24, 83-98. [ article in pdf ]

Anderson, N.D., Craik, F.I.M., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1998). The attentional demands of encoding and retrieval in younger and older adults: Evidence from divided attention costs. Psychology and Aging13, 405-423. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., McKeachie, W.J., & Lin Y-G. (1998). Assessment and modification of flexibility of cognitive structures created in university courses. Contemporary Educational Psychology23, 209-232.

Tzelgov, J., Yehene, V., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1997). From memory to automaticity and vice versa: On the relations between memory and automaticity. In Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities, J. Brzezinski, B. Krause, and T. Maruszewiski (Eds.), Rodopi: Amsterdam, pp. 239-262.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Lavi, H., McKeachie, W.J., & Lin, Y-G. (1997). Individual differences in students' retention of knowledge and conceptual structures learned in university and high school courses: The case of test anxiety. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11, 507-527. [ article in pdf ]

Craik, F.I.M., Govoni, R., Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Anderson, N. D. (1996). The effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General125, 159-180. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M, & Craik, F.I.M. (1996). Effects of perceptual and conceptual processing on memory for words and voice: Different patterns for young and old. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology49, 780-796. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Lin, Y-G., & McKeachie, W.J. (1995). Inferring students' cognitive structures and their development using the "Fill-in-the-Structure" (FITS) technique. In Cognitively Diagnostic Assessment, P. Nichols, S.F. Chipman, & R. Brennan

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Craik, F.I.M. (1995). Memory for context and its use in item memory: Comparisons of younger and older persons. Psychology and Aging10, 284-293. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M., & Lin Y-G. (1994). Measuring and improving students' disciplinary knowledge structures. In Perspectives on Student Motivation, Cognition, and Learning: Essays in Honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie, P. R. Pintrich, D. Brown, & C. A. Weinstein (Eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 51-78.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1993). The role of working memory in everyday cognition: A commentary on Logie's article. In Cognition in Everyday Life, R. Logie & G. Davies (Eds.), Elsvier Publishing, pp. 231-239.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1991). A comparison of training programs intended for different types of test-anxious students: Further support for an information processing model. Journal of Educational Psychology83, 134-139.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1990). Coding of Temporal order information: An automatic process? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition16, 117-126.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1990) Acquisition and retention of knowledge: Exploring mutual benefits to memory research and the educational setting. Applied Cognitive Psychology4, 295-320. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1990). The effects of rehearsal on temporal order coding. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society28, 181-184.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., McKeachie, W.J. & Lin, Y-G. (1989). Use of the "ordered-tree" technique to assess students' initial knowledge and conceptual learning during an academic course. Teaching of Psychology16, 82-187.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., McKeachie, W.J., & Lin, Y-G. (1989). Development of cognitive structures in various academic disciplines and their relations to students' study skills, anxiety and motivation: Further use of the "ordered-tree" technique. Journal of Higher Education Studies4, 10-15.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1988). Recognition of spatial location information: Another failure to support automaticity. Memory and Cognition16, 437-445.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1988). Retention of cognitive structures learned in university courses. In Practical Aspects of Memory: Current Research and Issues, Vol. 2, M.M. Gruneberg, P. Morris and R. Sykes (Eds.), Wiley, pp. 383-388.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., McKeachie, W.J. & Lin Y-G. (1987). Two types of test-anxious students: Further support for an information processing model. Journal of Educational Psychology79, 131-136.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1987). Coding of spatial location information - an automatic process? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 13, 595-605.

Jonides, J. & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (1987). Estimating frequency of occurrence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition13, 230-240.

Ayres, T.J., Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Jonides, J. (1986). Recognition memory of the stimulus suffix. Journal of Memory and Language25, 619-626.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Jonides, J. (1986). On the automaticity of frequency coding: Effects of competing task load, encoding strategy, and intention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 12, 378-386.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., McKeachie, W.J., Lin, Y-G., & Tucker, D. (1986). Inferring students' knowledge structures and their development using the "ordered tree" technique. Journal of Educational Psychology78, 130-140.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Ayres, T.J. (1986). Digit span, reading rate, and linguistic relativity. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology38A, 739-751. [ article in pdf ]

Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Jonides, J. (1985). The effects of rehearsal on frequency coding. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society23, 387-390.

Jonides, J., Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Palmer J. (1985). Assessing automaticity. Acta Psychologica60, 157-171.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Jonides, J. (1984). Maintenance rehearsal: A two-component analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition10, 369-385.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Jonides, J. (1984). Cognitive load and type I rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior23, 494-507.

Naveh-Benjamin, M. & Pachella, R.G. (1982). Effects of complexity in "Chernoff Faces." Human Factors24, 11-18.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., McKeachie, W.J., Lin, Y-G. & Holinger, D.P. (1981). Test anxiety: Deficits in information processing. Journal of Educational Psychology73, 816- 824.